Key signatures are the flats or sharps you see after the clef and before the time signature.
For quick reference use this table of key signatures in both major and minor keys.
The Circle of Fifths is a diagram which is an essential tool for musicians. It is named such because it uses a circle to illustrate the relationship of different keys that are a fifth apart.
The major scale is the foundation from which all other scales are formed.
Notes on the minor scale sound solemn and sad, there are three types of minor scales:
The word "chromatic" comes from the Greek word chroma meaning "color'. The chromatic scale consists of 12 notes each a half step apart.
The word "pentatonic" comes from the Greek word pente meaning five and tonic meaning tone.
The whole tone scale has 6 notes that are all a whole step apart making its intervallic formula easy to remember.
An interval is the difference between two pitches measured by half steps.
Notes that are played together or simultaneously create harmony. The interval between these notes are called harmonic intervals.