Nationalism in Music
During the 19th century, Germany was also a center of musical activity. By the mid-19th century however, music themes shifted to folklore and folk music became a style that influenced composers. This nationalist theme can be felt in the music of Russia, eastern Europe and Scandinavian countries.
The Mighty Handful
This term, also known as "the mighty five," is used to distinguish the 5 Russian nationalist composers of the 19th century. They include Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Mussogrsky and Rimsky-Korsakov.
Other Music Forms/Styles
- Verismo - A style of Italian opera wherein the story reflects daily life but with emphasis on intense, sometimes violent, actions and emotions. This style is particularly evident in the works of Giacomo Puccini.
- Symbolism - A concept introduced by Sigmund Freud that influenced various art mediums. This attempt to convey a composer's personal struggles in a symbolic manner can be felt in the works of Gustav Mahler
- Richard Wagner - He was influenced by the works of Beethoven and Liszt. Started composing operas at age 20; he coined the term "music dramas." Wagner took the opera to a different level by making use of larger orchestras and applying musical themes to his work. He called these musical themes leitmotiv or leading motive. One of his famous work is The Ring of the Nibelung.
- Antonin Dvorak - His Symphony No. 9, from The New World was influenced by his stay in America during the 1890s.
- Edvard Grieg - Norwegian composer who drew upon the national folklore of his beloved country as basis for his music.
- Richard Strauss - He was influenced by the works of Wagner. Wrote symphonic poems and operas; known for the lavish, sometimes shocking scenes in his operas.