Notre Dame School - Also known as Notre Dame School of Polyphony or Parisian School of Composition; it refers to the group of composers and singers who worked at or for the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris during the late 12th to early 13th centuries. Although during that period the said location was the center of musical activity, most of the composers remain anonymous except for Leonin and Perotin. Leonin, or Leoninus, was a French composer whose known work is the Magnus liber organi (Great Book of Organum). Perotin or Perotinus Magister, another French composer, is believed to have studied with Leonin and later edited the Magnus liber organi. Composers belonging to the Notre Dame School wrote early forms of polyphony which includes organunm and motet.
Burgundian School - Refers to the group of composers, musicians and singers who served in the chapels of Burgundy during the early part of the 15th century. These chapels were maintained by the dukes of Burgundy during that time, most notably Philip III (also known as Philip the Good) who ruled from 1419 to 1467 and Charles the Bold who ruled from 1467 to 1477. Two known Burgundian composers are Gilles Binchois and Guillaume Dufay. Composers belonging to the Burgundian school are known for their chansons or polyphonic secular songs that was for 2 to 3 voices.
Franco-Flemish School - Also known as Netherlands School, Flemish School or Franco-Netherlandish school; it refers to the group of composers in Europe during the latter half of the 15th century. Composers were very much in demand in the princely courts of France, Germany and Italy during this period. Most notable of these composers are Jean d'Okeghem, Jacob Obrecht and Josquin Desprez. Four-part chansons and other vocal music were written during this time.
Venetian School - Refers to the group of composers who worked in Venice which became the center of musical activity during the 16th century. St. Mark's Basilica in Venice became an important venue for musical experiments during this period. Adrian Willaert is known as the founder of the Venetian School; he used two, and at times 3, choirs each singing in four parts. The composer Giovanni Gabrielli wrote music for St. Mark's Basilica as well. Gabrielli experimented with choral and instrumental groups, positioning them in different sides of the basilica and making them perform alternately or in unison. Meanwhile, Claudio Monteverdi is known as one of the great contributors of opera during this period. Francesco Cavalli was one of Monteverdi's pupils who later became organist and then maestro di cappella at St. Mark's. Cavalli became one of the foremost Venetian opera composers after Monteverdi passed away.
Bolognese School - Refers to the group of composers who worked in Bologna during the 17th and 18th centuries. Arcangelo Corelli, nicknamed Il Bolognese, and Antonio Vivladi, fondly called "The Red Priest," were among the known composers of this period. Chamber and orchestral music evolved during this time.